The earth land area is heterogeneous in terms of elevation; about 45% of its land area belongs to higher elevation with altitude above 500 meters compared to sea level. In most cases, oxygen concentration decreases as altitude increases. Thus, high-altitude hypoxic stress is commonly faced by residents in areas with an average elevation exceeding 2500 meters and those who have just entered the plateau. High-altitude hypoxia significantly affects advanced neurobehaviors including learning and memory (L&M). Hippocampus, the integration center of L&M, could be the most crucial target affected by high-altitude hypoxia exposure. Based on these points, this review thoroughly discussed the relationship between high-altitude hypoxia and L&M impairment, in terms of hippocampal neuron apoptosis and dysfunction, neuronal oxidative stress disorder, neurotransmitters and related receptors, and nerve cell energy metabolism disorder, which is of great significance to find potential targets for medical intervention. Studies illustrate that the mechanism of L&M damaged by high-altitude hypoxia should be further investigated based on the entire review of issues related to this topic.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology