Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (AME) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in low renin hypertension and other characteristic clinical features. Typical patients present with severe hypertension, hypokalemia, and undetectable aldosterone. Most patients also have low birth weight, failure to thrive, and nephrocalcinosis. The 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) defect is documented by demonstrating a failure to convert cortisol to cortisone. Here, we report a patient with typical phenotypic features of AME who does not carry any of the previously described mutations in the HSDIIB2 gene. This female patient from a consanguineous Pakistani family presented at age 9 yr. She had a low birth weight compared with her siblings and presented with hypertension (225/120 mm Hg), low plasma renin activity, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, suppressed aldosterone, and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Echocardiogram did not reveal left ventricular hypertrophy, and baseline ophthalmological evaluation did not demonstrate hypertensive retinopathy. However, at age 12 yr, she developed mild to moderate hypertensive retinopathy. Biochemical analysis showed an elevated urinary cortisol to cortisone metabolites ratio (tetrahydrocortisol and 5α-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone) of 28 (normal, 0.66-2.44). She had a cortisol secretion rate of 0.43 mg/d (normal, 5-25 mg/d). Sequence analysis of the HSD11B2 gene revealed a novel homozygous Δ299 mutation in exon 5. In vitro expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that this mutation resulted in no activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical