Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on In-Hospital Outcomes in Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Yifeng Yang, Baoqiong Liu, Jiabei He, Sonali Gupta, Soumya Thumma, Yiming Luo, George Everett, Joseph Mattana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis entails a huge health burden among patients with diabetes. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of heart arrhythmia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of AF on clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: Using the 2012-2014 National Inpatient Sample database, we identified adult patients hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis as the principal discharge diagnosis. The identified admissions were stratified into 2 cohorts based on the AF presence. We used multivariable regression models and propensity score matching models to evaluate in-hospital mortality, length of stay, comorbidities, and in-hospital complications. Results: The study included 478,890 adult patients who were admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis in the year 2012-2014. A total of 467,780 (97.68%) had no AF and 11,125 (2.32%) had AF. In both multivariable regression models and propensity score matching models, compared with nonatrial fibrillation group, the AF group had higher in-hospital mortality rates (2.36 [1.69-3.32], P < 0.001) and longer length of stay (5.5 versus 3.3 days, P < 0.001). AF was also associated with a significantly higher incidence of complications including septic shock, pulmonary failure, mechanical ventilation, neurological failure, cerebral edema, acute kidney injury, acute hematologic failure, and cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Among patients who were hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis, comorbid AF led to increasing in-hospital mortality rates and longer length of stay. A potential explanation was that AF increased the risk of in-hospital complications including respiratory failure with a more frequent requirement for mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrest, and metabolic encephalopathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-356
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • In-hospital outcomes
  • National inpatient Sample

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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