Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading killer among infectious diseases, and a better TB vaccine is urgently needed. The critical components and mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain incompletely defined. Our previous studies demonstrate that Vγ2Vδ2 T cells specific for (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) phosphoantigen are unique in primates as multifunctional effectors of immune protection against TB infection. Here, we selectively immunized Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and assessed the effect on infection in a rhesus TB model. A single respiratory vaccination of macaques with an HMBPP-producing attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm δactA prfA∗) caused prolonged expansion of HMBPP-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in circulating and pulmonary compartments. This did not occur in animals similarly immunized with an Lm δgcpE strain, which did not produce HMBPP. Lm δactA prfA∗vaccination elicited increases in Th1-like Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in the airway, and induced containment of TB infection after pulmonary challenge. The selective immunization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells reduced lung pathology and mycobacterial dissemination to extrapulmonary organs. Vaccine effects coincided with the fastacting memory-like response of Th1-like Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and tissue-resident Vγ2Vδ2 effector T cells that produced both IFN-γ and perforin and inhibited intracellular Mtb growth. Furthermore, selective immunization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells enabled CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to mount earlier pulmonary Th1 responses to TB challenge. Our findings show that selective immunization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells can elicit fast-acting and durable memory-like responses that amplify responses of other T cell subsets, and provide an approach to creating more effective TB vaccines.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 2019|
- γδ T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas