Immune responses in COVID-19 and tuberculosis coinfection: A scoping review

Kevin Flores-Lovon, Brando Ortiz-Saavedra, Luis A. Cueva-Chicaña, Shalom Aperrigue-Lira, Elizbet S. Montes-Madariaga, David R. Soriano-Moreno, Brett Bell, Rodney Macedo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background and aim: Patients with COVID-19 and tuberculosis coinfection are at an increased risk of severe disease and death. We therefore sought to evaluate the current evidence which assessed the immune response in COVID-19 and tuberculosis coinfection Methods: We searched Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify articles published between 2020 and 2021. We included observational studies evaluating the immune response in patients with tuberculosis and COVID-19 compared to patients with COVID-19 alone. Results: Four cross-sectional studies (372 participants) were identified. In patients with asymptomatic COVID-19 and latent tuberculosis (LTBI), increased cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and humoral responses were found. In addition, patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and LTBI had higher leukocytes counts and less inflammation. Regarding patients with COVID-19 and active tuberculosis (aTB), they exhibited decreased total lymphocyte counts, CD4 T cells specific against SARS-CoV-2 and responsiveness to SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared to patients with only COVID-19. Conclusion: Although the evidence is limited, an apparent positive immunomodulation is observed in patients with COVID-19 and LTBI. On the other hand, patients with COVID-19 and aTB present a dysregulated immune response. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings and expand knowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number992743
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Aug 26 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • coinfection
  • immunity
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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