Human papillomavirus (HPV) biomarkers in head and neck: Squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)

Arunkumar Anandharaj, Oleksandr Ekshyyan, Tara Moore-Medlin, Vikas Mehta, Cherie Ann O Nathan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Head and cell neck squamous carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms evolved through multistep carcinogenesis, which is commonly attributed to the abuse of tobacco and alcohol. The epidemiological and molecular evidences from recent decades show the human papillomavirus (HPV) to be causative in a subset of HNSCC. Anatomically, HPV exhibits a predilection for the oral cavity and oropharyngeal and laryngeal regions of the head and neck. HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors differ in many facets that include histology, differentiation, risk factors, and prognosis. At present, no guidelines are available to choose an appropriate biomarker for the clinical assessment of HPV in HNSCC malignancies. Currently, p16 immunohistochemistry is used as a potential surrogate marker, but its use as a predictive marker is still questionable. Taking the present scenario into consideration, we present in this chapter a list of biomolecules that have higher possibility for use as biomarkers. A randomized clinical trial is required for validation of each biomolecule before designating it as a biomarker that can be subsumed for routine analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBiomarkers in Disease
Subtitle of host publicationMethods, Discoveries and Applications: Biomarkers in Cancer
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9789400776814
ISBN (Print)9789400776807
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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