HPV-16 L1 VLP vaccine elicits a broad-spectrum of cytokine responses in whole blood

Ligia A. Pinto, Philip E. Castle, Richard B. Roden, Clayton D. Harro, Douglas R. Lowy, John T. Schiller, Dora Wallace, Marcus Williams, William Kopp, Ian H. Frazer, Jay A. Berzofsky, Allan Hildesheim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Here, we evaluated innate and adaptive immune system cytokine responses induced by HPV-16 L1 VLP in whole blood (WB) cultures from individuals receiving the vaccine (n = 20) or placebo (n = 4) before and after vaccination. 11 cytokines were measured: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and GM-CSF using multiplex bead arrays. Cytokine profiles from WB samples clearly discriminated between vaccine and placebo recipients and between pre and post-vaccination responses. Significant increases in Th1, Th2 and inflammatory cytokines were observed in WB assays following vaccination. Results from WB assays were compared against parallel PBMC-based assays in a subset of patients. Differences between whole blood assay and PBMC were observed, with the highest levels of induction found for WB for several cytokines. Our results indicate that multiplex assays for cytokine profiling in WB are an efficient tool for assessing broad spectrum, innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccines and identifying immunologic correlates of protection in efficacy studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3555-3564
Number of pages10
Issue number27
StatePublished - May 20 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Cytokines
  • HPV-16 L1 VLP vaccine
  • Whole blood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'HPV-16 L1 VLP vaccine elicits a broad-spectrum of cytokine responses in whole blood'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this