Background: High inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) may improve tissue oxygenation but also impair pulmonary function. We aimed to assess whether the use of high intraoperative FIO2 increases the risk of major respiratory complications. Methods: We studied patients undergoing non-cardiothoracic surgery involving mechanical ventilation in this hospital-based registry study. The cases were divided into five groups based on the median FIO2 between intubation and extubation. The primary outcome was a composite of major respiratory complications (re-intubation, respiratory failure, pulmonary oedema, and pneumonia) developed within 7 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality. Several predefined covariates were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The primary analysis included 73 922 cases, of whom 3035 (4.1%) developed a major respiratory complication within 7 days of surgery. For patients in the high- and low-oxygen groups, the median FIO2 was 0.79 [range 0.64-1.00] and 0.31 [0.16-0.34], respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the median FIO2 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with increased risk of respiratory complications (adjusted odds ratio for high vs low FIO2 1.99, 95% confidence interval [1.72-2.31], P-value for trend <0.001). This finding was robust in a series of sensitivity analyses including adjustment for intraoperative oxygenation. High median FIO2 was also associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio for high vs low FIO2 1.97, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.99], P-value for trend <0.001). Conclusions: In this analysis of administrative data on file, high intraoperative FIO2 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with major respiratory complications and with 30-day mortality. The effect remained stable in a sensitivity analysis controlled for oxygenation. Clinical trial registration. NCT02399878.
- Postoperative complications
- Respiratory insufficiency
- Respiratory therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine