High HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol Increases Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertensive Patients

Valentina Trimarco, Raffaele Izzo, Carmine Morisco, Pasquale Mone, Maria Virginia Manzi, Angela Falco, Daniela Pacella, Paola Gallo, Maria Lembo, Gaetano Santulli, Bruno Trimarco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: Emerging evidence suggests that elevated circulating levels of HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) could be linked to an increased mortality risk. However, to the best of our knowledge, the relationship between HDL-C and specific cardiovascular events has never been investigated in patients with hypertension. Methods: To fill this knowledge gap, we analyzed the relationship between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients within the Campania Salute Network in Southern Italy. Results: We studied 11 987 patients with hypertension, who were followed for 25 534 person-years. Our population was divided in 3 groups according to the HDL-C plasma levels: HDL-C<40 mg/dL (low HDL-C); HDL-C between 40 and 80 mg/dL (medium HDL-C); and HDL-C>80 mg/dL (high HDL-C). At the follow-up analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a total of 245 cardiovascular events with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events in the low HDL-C group and in the high HDL-C arm compared with the medium HDL-C group. The spline analysis revealed a nonlinear U-shaped association between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Interestingly, the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high HDL-C was not confirmed in female patients. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that there is a U-shaped association between HDL-C and the risk of cardiovascular events in male patients with hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2355-2363
Number of pages9
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022


  • Cholesterol
  • Dyslipidemias
  • Heart disease risk factors
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Population
  • Sex characteristics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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