Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to evaluate associations of multiple recommended dietary patterns (i.e. the alternate Mediterranean diet [aMED], the Healthy Eating Index [HEI]-2015 and the healthful Plant-based Diet Index [hPDI]) with serum metabolite profile, and to examine dietary-pattern-associated metabolites in relation to incident diabetes. Methods: We included 2842 adult participants free from diabetes, CVD and cancer during baseline recruitment of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Metabolomics profiling of fasting serum was performed using an untargeted approach. Dietary pattern scores were derived using information collected by two 24 h dietary recalls. Dietary-pattern-associated metabolites were identified using multivariable survey linear regressions and their associations with incident diabetes were assessed using multivariable survey Poisson regressions with adjustment for traditional risk factors. Results: We identified eight metabolites (mannose, γ/β-tocopherol, N1-methylinosine, pyrraline and four amino acids) that were inversely associated with all dietary scores. These metabolites were detrimentally associated with various cardiometabolic risk traits, especially insulin resistance. A score comprised of these metabolites was associated with elevated risk of diabetes (RRper SD 1.54 [95% CI 1.29, 1.83]), and this detrimental association appeared to be attenuated or eliminated by having a higher score for aMED (pinteraction = 0.0001), HEI-2015 (pinteraction = 0.020) or hPDI (pinteraction = 0.023). For example, RR (95% CI) of diabetes for each SD increment in the metabolite score was 1.99 (1.44, 2.37), 1.67 (1.17, 2.38) and 1.08 (0.86, 1.34) across the lowest to the highest tertile of aMED score, respectively. Conclusions/interpretation: Various recommended dietary patterns were inversely related to a group of metabolites that were associated with elevated risk of diabetes. Adhering to a healthful eating pattern may attenuate or eliminate the detrimental association between metabolically unhealthy serum metabolites and risk of diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Dietary guidelines
- Dietary patterns
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism