Haemophilus influenzae

W. A. Szymczak, Michael H. Levi, J. W. Johnston, M. A. Apicella

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative, strict human pathogen that can colonize hosts in an asymptomatic manner or can cause invasive disease. To persist in the host, the organism utilizes many virulence factors that are regulated in a complex manner. Virulence factors include the polysaccharide capsule of encapsulated strains, lipooligosaccharide extending from the cell membrane, and many proteins involved in adhesion of the bacterium to respiratory epithelial cells. In this review, we describe the major mechanisms of virulence and how they contribute to colonization and invasive disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Microbiology
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9780128117378
ISBN (Print)9780128117361
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Biofilm
  • Capsule
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Colonization
  • Haemophilus
  • Lipooligosaccharide
  • Meningitis
  • Otitis media
  • Pathogenesis
  • Phase variation
  • Pneumonia
  • Sepsis
  • Vaccine
  • Virulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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