Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Survival in Esthesioneuroblastoma

Sandra T. Mikhael, Abanoob F. Tadrosse, Marina F. Tadrosse, Arsany Yassa, Mina T. Mikhael, Gregory L. Barinsky, Jordon G. Grube, Christina H. Fang, Jean Anderson Eloy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare sinonasal malignancy with little known regarding how regional and socioeconomic differences in the United States alter disease survival. The aim of this study is to explore the geographic difference in clinical features, socioeconomic factors, and survival outcomes of ENB patients. Methods: ENB cases were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1975–2016. Patient data were stratified based on geographical location and comparative analyses of socioeconomic features, disease characteristics, and survival patterns were performed. Kaplan–Meier regression analyses were used to estimate disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: A total of 987 patients were identified: 56.4% West, 14.0% South, 12.7% Midwest, and 16.6% East. The West had the highest proportion of patients with Medicaid coverage (P <.001), stage A malignancy (P <.001), and treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (P <.001). The South had the highest proportion of patients who were Black (P <.001), uninsured (P <.001), and resided in rural areas (P <.001). Five-year DSS patterns were 81.0% (West), 79.8% (East), 67.4% (Midwest), and 72.7% (South) [P =.018]. Ten-year DSS outcomes were 74.0% (West), 73.7% (East), 60.9% (Midwest), and 63.6% (South) [P =.017]. Conclusion: In ENB patients, survival disparity exists in the United States based on geographical region. Patients from the West and East exhibit higher survival than those from the South and Midwest. Level of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2162–E2168, 2021.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2162-E2168
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Esthesioneuroblastoma
  • geographic region
  • SEER
  • sinonasal cancer
  • socioeconomic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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