Four-Day Food Record Macronutrient Intake, with and Without Biomarker Calibration, and Chronic Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women

Ross L. Prentice, Mary Pettinger, Marian L. Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Cheng Zheng, G. A.Nagana Gowda, Ying Huang, Lesley F. Tinker, Barbara V. Howard, Joann E. Manson, Robert Wallace, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Karen C. Johnson, Johanna W. Lampe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We recently evaluated associations of biomarker-calibrated protein intake, protein density, carbohydrate intake, and carbohydrate density with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (1993-present, 40 US clinical centers). The biomarkers relied on serum and urine metabolomics profiles, and biomarker calibration used regression of biomarkers on food frequency questionnaires. Here we develop corresponding calibration equations using food records and dietary recalls. In addition, we use calibrated intakes based on food records in disease association estimation in a cohort subset (n = 29,294) having food records. In this analysis, more biomarker variation was explained by food records than by FFQs for absolute macronutrient intake, with 24-hour recalls being intermediate. However, the percentage of biomarker variation explained was similar for each assessment approach for macronutrient densities. Invasive breast cancer risk was related inversely to carbohydrate and protein densities using food records, in analyses that included (calibrated) total energy intake and body mass index. Corresponding analyses for absolute intakes did not differ from the null, nor did absolute or relative intakes associate significantly with colorectal cancer or coronary heart disease. These analyses do not suggest major advantages for food records or dietary recalls in comparison with less costly and logistically simpler food frequency questionnaires for these nutritional variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1061-1070
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • biomarkers
  • cancer
  • coronary heart disease
  • diet
  • food records
  • macronutrients
  • measurement error
  • metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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