Factors leading to differences in the school performance of boys and girls

Stephen A. Richardson, Helene Koller, Mindy Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Literature supporting the finding that boys do not fare as well in school performance during the first few years of school is reviewed, and possible reasons for this pattern are presented. These reasons are categorized as biological (e.g., X-linkage of intellectual traits) and social (e.g., sex-role training is more stringent for boys than for girls, and parents may place more pressure on boys for academic achievement). Social factors are presented in light of the rapid social change that has been taking place in the carrying out of adult sex roles and whether this has filtered down to changes in the sex-role training in the socialization of children. Pediatricians should be aware of whether school problems are occurring for both boys and girls, and their responses to such problems may differ, depending on the child's sex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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