Evolving paradigms in HIV malignancies: Review of ongoing clinical trials

Rachel A. BenderIgnacio, Lilie L. Lin, Lakshmi Rajdev, Elizabeth Chiao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This review highlights current interventional clinical trials for HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAMs), with emphasis on 4 mechanistic areas: Immunomodulatory therapies and gene therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors; cytotoxic therapies; novel tumor-targeted and virally targeted therapies in both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC); and other screening or topical/ablative interventions. A search on ClinicalTrials.gov located 35 trials, including 12 immunomodulatory or gene therapy trials, 6 cytotoxic therapy trials, 10 trials of therapies with tumor or viral molecular targets, and 7 trials evaluating screening interventions or topical or ablative therapies. Study drugs, mechanisms, and outcomes of interest, including future directions, are discussed. Targeted therapies and immunotherapies address not only the tumor but underlying viral oncogens, including possible benefits on HIV-specific immunologic control. The resulting science from the trials listed in this review will provide important translational breakthroughs for people living with HIV (PLWH) and cancer. We highlight disease-specific challenges that could be addressed in future studies, including testing the safety and efficacy of cuttingedge immunotherapy and targeted treatments used in the general cancer population, and improving gaps in knowledge and practice for cancer screening and its treatment, especially in low-resource regions. Additional important considerations include identification of novel therapies for virally mediated tumors that disproportionally present in PLWH, how to treat persons with HIVAM and advanced immunosuppression, and how to comanage both diseases in antiretroviral therapy-naïve persons and those receiving care in settings where supportive therapies for hematologic toxicities and infections are limited. Current and future clinical trials should address needs of both resourcereplete and-limited regions, as well as cancers that are uncommon in or respond differently to HIV-negative populations (eg, Kaposi sarcoma or anal cancer), in addition to an increased focus on NADCs not traditionally linked with HIV, such as lung or gastrointestinal tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1018-1026
Number of pages9
JournalJNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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