Background: The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has increased approximately fivefold since the 1980s. A similar increase in the incidence of lung NETs has been reported, but therapy has not been optimized. Methods: This exploratory subanalysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) in a cohort of patients with low- to intermediate-grade advanced lung NET from the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled RADIANT-2 (RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors) study. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate, overall survival, change from baseline in biomarker levels, and safety outcomes. Results: Patients were randomly assigned to everolimus plus octreotide LAR (n = 33) or placebo plus octreotide LAR (n = 11). Median PFS was 13.63 months in the everolimus plus octreotide LAR arm compared with 5.59 months in the placebo plus octreotide LAR arm (relative risk for progression: HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.68; P = .228). More patients receiving everolimus plus octreotide LAR (67%) experienced minor tumor shrinkage (not partial response as per RECIST [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors]) than those receiving placebo plus octreotide LAR (27%). Most frequently reported adverse events (AEs) included stomatitis, rash, diarrhea, and asthenia. This was consistent with the overall RADIANT-2 trial and the safety profile of everolimus. Conclusions: This exploratory subgroup analysis of the RADIANT-2 trial indicates that in patients with advanced lung NET, the addition of everolimus to octreotide LAR improves median PFS by 2.4-fold compared with placebo plus octreotide LAR. These clinically significant observations support the continued evaluation of everolimus treatment regimens in this patient population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine