Etiologies of melanoma development and prevention measures: A review of the current evidence

Amir Reza Djavid, Connor Stonesifer, Benjamin T. Fullerton, Samuel W. Wang, Marlene A. Tartaro, Bradley D. Kwinta, Joseph M. Grimes, Larisa J. Geskin, Yvonne M. Saenger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


(1) Melanoma is the most aggressive dermatologic malignancy, with an estimated 106,110 new cases to be diagnosed in 2021. The annual incidence rates continue to climb, which underscores the critical importance of improving the methods to prevent this disease. The interventions to assist with melanoma prevention vary and typically include measures such as UV avoidance and the use of protective clothing, sunscreen, and other chemopreventive agents. However, the evidence is mixed surrounding the use of these and other interventions. This review discusses the heritable etiologies underlying melanoma development before delving into the data surrounding the preventive methods highlighted above. (2) A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify the clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses pertinent to melanoma prevention and incidence. Online resources were queried to identify epidemiologic and clinical trial information. (3) Evidence exists to support population-wide screening programs, the proper use of sunscreen, and community-targeted measures in the prevention of melanoma. Clinical evidence for the majority of the proposed preventive chemotherapeutics is presently minimal but continues to evolve. (4) Further study of these chemotherapeutics, as well as improvement of techniques in artificial intelligence and imaging techniques for melanoma screening, is warranted for continued improvement of melanoma prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4914
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Melanoma
  • Prevention
  • Screening
  • Sun safety
  • Sunscreen
  • Tanning
  • UV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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