Erythema chronicum migrans and lyme arthritis. The enlarging clinical spectrum

A. C. Steere, S. E. Malawista, J. A. Hardin, S. Ruddy, W. Askenase, W. A. Andiman

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529 Scopus citations


Thirtytwo patients with the onset of erythema chronicum migrans, Lyme arthritis, or both in mid 1976 were studied prospectively. The skin lesion (24 patients) typically lasted about 3 wk, beginning as a red macule or papule that expanded to form a large ring with central clearing. Associated symptoms ranged from none to malaise, fatigue, chills and fever, headache, stiff neck, backache, myalgias, nausea, vomiting, and sore throat. Three patients had been bitten by ticks at the site of the initial lesion 4 to 20 days before its onset; 19 patients suddenly developed a monoarticular or oligoarticular arthritis 4 days to 22 wk (median, 4 wk) after onset of the skin lesion; 8 developed arthritis without a preceding skin lesion; 7 of these 27 experienced migratory joint pains. Arthritis attacks, most commonly in the knee, were typically short (median, 8 days) but sometimes persisted for months. Other manifestations included neurologic abnormalities, myocardial conduction abnormalities, serum cryoprecipitates, elevated serum IgM levels, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates. The diagnostic marker is the skin lesion; without it, geographic clustering is the most important clue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-698
Number of pages14
JournalUnknown Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1977

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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