Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator as a teaching tool for anatomy education

Alla Solyar, Hernando Cuellar, Babak Sadoughi, Todd R. Olson, Marvin P. Fried

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Background: Virtual reality simulators provide an effective learning environment and are widely used. This study evaluated the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator (ES3; Lockheed Martin) as a tool for anatomic education. Methods: Two medical student groups (experimental, n = 8; control, n = 7) studied paranasal sinus anatomy using either the simulator or textbooks. Their knowledge was then tested on the identification of anatomic structures on a view of the nasal cavities. Results: The mean scores were 9.4 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 3.0 out of 10 for the simulator and textbook groups, respectively (P = .009). Moreover, the simulator group completed the test in a significantly shorter time, 5.9 ± 1.1 versus 8.3 ± 2.0 minutes (P = .021). A survey asking the students to rate their respective study modality did not materialize significant differences. Conclusion: The ES3 can be an effective tool in teaching sinonasal anatomy. This study may help shape the future of anatomic education and the development of modern educational tools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-124
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Anatomy education
  • Surgical simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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