Endoscopic endonasal surgery simulator as a training tool for ophthalmology residents

Meredith Weiss, Simeon A. Lauer, Marvin P. Fried, Jose Uribe, Babak Sadoughi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: Surgical training on the endoscopic endonasal surgery simulator had proven efficacy for otorhinolaryngology residents in preparation for endoscopic endonasal and sinus surgery. Its use for ophthalmology residents in preparation for endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy has not been previously studied. METHODS: Eight of 15 ophthalmology residents recruited for this experimental study underwent training on the endoscopic endonasal surgery simulator, completing the novice and intermediate modules. All 15 residents then participated in cadaver surgical training, performing defined surgical tasks including endoscopic navigation, identification of nasal anatomy, endonasal injection, and middle turbinate medialization. Performance on these tasks was videotaped and graded by 2 masked observers. Total mean scores and variance by task category were compared between subjects and controls and interobserver variance was compared between observers. RESULTS: Correlation between the 2 masked observers' scores was strong (R = 0.677), with total mean scores of 2.34 and 2.38, respectively. Total mean scores were 2.79 for subjects, and 1.86 for controls (F value 0.735, p = 0.01). Residents who trained on the simulator performed significantly better during endonasal navigation (mean scores 2.58 for subjects versus 1.74 for controls, p = 0.04) and endonasal injection (mean scores 2.73 for subjects versus 1.72 for controls, p = 0.03) and minimally better at identification of nasal anatomy (mean scores 2.93 for subjects versus 1.88 for controls, p = 0.18) and middle turbinate medialization (mean scores 3.13 for subjects versus 2.78 for controls, p = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmology residents who trained on the surgical simulator had significantly enhanced endoscopic endonasal surgical skills for endonasal navigation and injection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)460-464
Number of pages5
JournalOphthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Ophthalmology


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