Does the type of cardioplegic technique influence hemodilution and transfusion requirements in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

Alfred H. Stammers, Eric A. Tesdahl, Linda B. Mongero, Andrew J. Stasko, Samuel Weinstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


During cardiac surgery, myocardial protection is performed using diverse cardioplegic (CP) solutions with and without the presence of blood. New CP formulations extend ischemic intervals but use high-volume, crystalloid-based solutions. The present study evaluated four commonly used CP solutions and their effect on hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Records from 16,670 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB between February 2016 and January 2017 were reviewed. Patients were classified into one of four groups according to CP type: 4-1 blood to crystalloid (4:1), microplegia (MP), del Nido (DN) and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK). Covariate-adjusted estimates of group differences were calculated using multivariable logistic and linear mixed effects regression models. The primary end point was intraoperative transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs), with a secondary end point of intraoperative hematocrit change. Among all patients, 8,350 (50.1%) received 4:1, 4,606 (27.6%) MP, 3,344 (20.1%) DN, and 370 (2.2%) HTK. Both 4:1 and MP were more likely to be used in patients undergoing coronary revascularization surgery, whereas DN and HTK were seen more often in patients undergoing valve surgery (p < .001). The highest volume of crystalloid CP solution was seen in the HTK group, 2,000 [1,754, 2200], whereas MP had the lowest, 50 [32, 67], p < .001. Ultrafiltration usage was as follows: HTK-84.9%. DN-83.7%, MP-40.1%, and 4:1-34.0%, p < .001. There were no statistically significant differences on the primary outcome risk of intraoperative RBC transfusion. However, statistically significant differences among all but one of the pair-wise comparisons of CP methods on hematocrit change (p < .05 or smaller), with MP having the lowest predicted drift (27.8%) and HTK having the highest (29.4%). During cardiac surgery, the administration of different CP formulations results in varying intraoperative hematocrit changes related to the volume of crystalloid solution administered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-240
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Extra-Corporeal Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2017


  • Cardioplegia
  • Del Nido cardioplegia
  • Hemodilution
  • Microplegia
  • Myocardial preservation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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