Distribution of Brain Metastases in Relation to the Hippocampus: Implications for Neurocognitive Functional Preservation

Amol Ghia, Wolfgang A. Tomé, Sayana Thomas, George Cannon, Deepak Khuntia, John S. Kuo, Minesh P. Mehta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations


Purpose: With the advent of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the ability to limit the radiation dose to normal tissue offers an avenue to limit side effects. This study attempted to delineate the distribution of brain metastases with relation to the hippocampus for the purpose of exploring the viability of tomotherapy-guided hippocampal sparing therapy potentially to reduce neurocognitive deficits from radiation. Methods and Materials: The pre-radiotherapy T1-weighted, postcontrast axial MR images of 100 patients who received whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or a radiosurgical boost following whole brain radiotherapy between 2002 and 2006 were examined. We contoured brain metastases as well as hippocampi with 5-, 10-, and 15-mm expansion envelopes. Results: Of the 272 identified metastases, 3.3% (n = 9) were within 5 mm of the hippocampus, and 86.4% of metastases were greater than 15 mm from the hippocampus (n = 235). The most common location for metastatic disease was the frontal lobe (31.6%, n = 86). This was followed by the cerebellum (24.3%, n = 66), parietal lobe (16.9%, n = 46), temporal lobe (12.9%, n = 35), occipital lobe (7.7%, n = 21), deep brain nuclei (4.0%, n = 11), and brainstem (2.6%, n = 7). Conclusions: Of the 100 patients, 8 had metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Hence, a 5-mm margin around the hippocampus for conformal avoidance whole brain radiotherapy represents an acceptable risk, especially because these patients in the absence of any other intracranial disease could be salvaged using stereotactic radiosurgery. Moreover, we developed a hippocampal sparing tomotherapy plan as proof of principle to verify the feasibility of this therapy in the setting of brain metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-977
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 15 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain metastases
  • Distribution
  • Hippocampus
  • IMRT
  • Neurocognition
  • Tomotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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