Objective: To perform a systematic review of mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the seminal vesicle (SV) to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. Methods: “Seminal vesicle mixed epithelial stromal tumor” OR “seminal vesicle cystadenoma” were searched on PubMed/MEDLINE for relevant articles through 6 September 2021. Articles were eligible if they were in English, accessible via our university library services, and if the abstract was concordant with the content of the publication. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In total, 66 articles were identified, of which 34 (N = 36 patients) were included. The most common presenting symptoms were lower urinary tract symptoms (33%, 12/36), dysuria (22%, 8/36), lower abdominal pain (17%, 6/36), and hematuria (17%, 6/36). However, there were eight cases (23%, 8/36) of asymptomatic incidental SV tumors. A biopsy was performed in 47% of cases (17/36), of which 53% (9/17) showed benign findings, 29% (5/17) were inconclusive, and 18% (3/17) SV cystadenoma. Surgical resection was performed using open (57%, 20/35), laparoscopic (26%, 9/35), or robotic (17%, 6/35) techniques. The majority (94%, 34/36) of the SV tumors were low-grade. Long-term follow-up was reported for 15 patients in which two patients (13%, 2/15) had tumor recurrence. Conclusion: High rate of inconclusive biopsy of SV tumors suggests that routine biopsy is of questionable utility. Surgical excision frequently relieves symptoms and confirms accurate pathologic diagnosis. After tumor removal, patients should be surveilled with cross-sectional imaging of the pelvis given the possibility of tumor recurrence.
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