SAMHD1 is a critical restriction factor for HIV-1 in non-cycling cells and its antiviral activity is regulated by T592 phosphorylation. Here, we show that SAMHD1 dephosphorylation at T592 is controlled during the cell cycle, occurring during M/G1 transition in proliferating cells. Using several complementary proteomics and biochemical approaches, we identify the phosphatase PP2A-B55α responsible for rendering SAMHD1 antivirally active. SAMHD1 is specifically targeted by PP2A-B55α holoenzymes during mitotic exit, in line with observations that PP2A-B55α is a key mitotic exit phosphatase in mammalian cells. Strikingly, as HeLa or activated primary CD4+ T cells enter the G1 phase, pronounced reduction of RT products is observed upon HIV-1 infection dependent on the presence of dephosphorylated SAMHD1. Moreover, PP2A controls SAMHD1 pT592 level in non-cycling monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Thus, the PP2A-B55α holoenzyme is a key regulator to switch on the antiviral activity of SAMHD1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Physics and Astronomy
- General Chemistry
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology