Defining the kinetics of breast pseudoptosis after reduction mammaplasty

Mihye Choi, Jacob Unger, Kevin Small, Oren Tepper, Naveen Kumar, Daniel Feldman, Nolan Karp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Despite the clinical relevance of bottoming out, or pseudoptosis, associated with reduction mammaplasty (RM) its evaluation remains an imprecise science. This study aims to further define the kinetics of postoperative pseudoptosis over an extended period of time, after our previous study investigating pseudoptosis in the early postoperative period.Patients undergoing medial pedicle RM had 3-dimensional photographs taken at year 1 and year 2 intervals postoperatively (year 1 = 300-450 days; year 2 = 700-900 days). Bottoming out was assessed with various 3-dimensional parameters.The total breast volume and the percent tissue distribution in the upper pole of the breast did not change from year 1 to year 2. The anterior-posterior projection as well as vector measurements for internipple distance and sternal notch to nipple distance also remained stable from year 1 to year 2.Although previous data from our group documented the occurrence of bottoming out and continued size reduction over the first postoperative year after breast reduction, the present study shows that pseudoptosis does not seem to occur during the second postoperative year.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-522
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-dimensional analysis
  • 3-dimensional scanning
  • Pseudoptosis
  • Reduction mammaplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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