De novo mosaic and partial monosomy of chromosome 21 in a case with superior vena cava duplication

Abul Kalam Azad, Lindsay Yanakakis, Samantha Issleb, Jessica Turina, Kelli Drabik, Christina Bonner, Eve Simi, Andrew Wagner, Morry Fiddler, Rizwan Naeem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Full or partial monosomy of chromosome (chr) 21 is a very rare abnormal cytogenetic finding. It is characterized by variable sizes and deletion breakpoints on the long arm (q) of chr 21 that lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypes that include an increased risk of birth defects, developmental delay and intellectual deficit. Case presentation: We report a 37-year-old G1P0 woman initially screened by non-invasive prenatal testing with no positive findings that was followed by an 18-week anatomy scan with a fetal finding of duplication of the superior vena cava (SVC). The medical and family history was otherwise uneventful. After appropriate genetic counseling, amniocentesis was performed to evaluate suspected chromosomal anomalies. Conclusions: Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed loss of one chr 21 signal that was further delineated by chromosomal microarray analysis on uncultured amniocytes as a terminal 10 Mb deletion on chr 21q. Karyotype and microarrays on cultured amniocytes showed two cell lines for a mosaic 21q terminal deletion and monosomy 21. The combined molecular cytogenetics results reported following the ISCN 2016 guideline as mos 46,XX,del(21)(q22)dn[20]/45,XX,-21dn[10].nuc ish(D21S342/D21S341/D21S259x1)[100].arr[GRCh37] 21q11.2q22.12(15412676_36272993)x1~2,21q22.12q22.3(36431283_47612400)x1. Parental chromosomal analysis revealed normal karyotypes. Thus, this was a de novo mosaic full and partial monosomy of chr 21 in a case with SVC duplication. Despite the association of congenital heart disease with monsomy 21 we could not find any published literature or online databases for this cytogenetic abnormality. The patient terminated the pregnancy following the abnormal molecular cytogenetic results due to the possible challenges the baby would face if carried to term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number45
JournalMolecular Cytogenetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 12 2020


  • Chromosome 21
  • Mosaicism
  • Partial monosomy
  • Superior vena cava duplication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Biochemistry, medical


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