Daily luteal serum and urinary hormone profiles in the menopause transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

Nanette Santoro, Samar R. El Khoudary, Alexis Nasr, Ellen B. Gold, Gail Greendale, Dan Mcconnell, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Jelena Pavlovic, Carol Derby, Sybil Crawford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective:To further characterize the endocrinology of the menopause transition, we sought to determine: whether relationships between urine and serum hormones are maintained as women enter their sixth decade; whether a single luteal phase serum progesterone (P) is reflective of integrated-luteal urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (uPdg); and whether serum P, like luteal uPdg, declines as women approach their final menses (FMP).Methods:The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study's (DHS) is a community-based observational study. A subset of participants underwent a timed, luteal blood draw planned for cycle days 16 to 24 during the same month of DHS collection. Serum-luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and P, and urine LH, FSH, estrone conjugates (E1c), and daily and integrated luteal uPdg were measured in 268 samples from 170 women. Serum/urine hormone associations were determined using Pearson's correlation and linear regression, adjusted for concurrent age, body mass index, smoking status, and race/ethnicity.Results:Pearson's r ranged from 0.573 (for LH) to 0.843 (for FSH) for serum/urine correlations. Integrated luteal uPdg weakly correlated with serum P (Pearson's r=0.26, P=0.004) and explained 7% of the variability in serum P in adjusted linear regression (total R2 0.09, P=0.002). Serum P demonstrated a marginally significant decline with approaching FMP in adjusted analysis (P=0.04).Conclusions:Urine and serum hormones maintain a close relationship in women into their sixth decade of life. Serum luteal P was weakly reflective of luteal Pdg excretion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-133
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020


  • Estradiol
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Progesterone
  • Reproductive aging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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