Contributions of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and traditional vascular risk factors to peripheral artery disease in women

Emily Cedarbaum, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C. Price, Adaora A. Adimora, Marcas Bamman, Mardge Cohen, Margaret A. Fischl, Kunihiro Matsushita, Igho Ofotokun, Michael Plankey, Eric C. Seaberg, Michael T. Yin, Carl Grunfeld, Shant Vartanian, Anjali Sharma, Phyllis C. Tien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objectives:HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is unclear whether HIV and HCV are also associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the association of HIV, HCV, and traditional CVD risk factors with PAD in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter US cohort.Methods:In this cross-sectional study, ankle-brachial index was estimated using Doppler ultrasound and manual sphygmomanometer in 1899 participants aged more than 40 years with HIV/HCV coinfection, HCV or HIV monoinfection, or neither infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of PAD (ankle-brachial index ≤0.9) after controlling for demographic, behavioral, and CVD risk factors.Results:Over two-thirds were African-American, median age was 50 years, and PAD prevalence was 7.7% with little difference by infection status. After multivariable adjustment, neither HIV nor HCV infection was associated with greater odds of PAD. Factors associated with PAD included older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.01 for age 61-70 vs. 40-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 3.87], Black race (aOR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.63), smoking (aOR: 1.27 per 10-pack-year increment; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.48), and higher SBP (aOR: 1.14 per 10 mmHg; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.28).Conclusion:The high PAD prevalence in this nationally representative cohort of women with or at risk for HIV is on par with general population studies in individuals a decade older than our study's median age. HIV and HCV infection are not associated with greater PAD risk relative to uninfected women with similar risk factors. Modifiable traditional CVD risk factors may be important early intervention targets in women with and at risk for HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2025-2033
Number of pages9
Issue number13
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019


  • HIV
  • ankle-brachial index
  • hepatitis C
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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