Common pathway for the red chromophore formation in fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins

Vladislav V. Verkhusha, Dmitry M. Chudakov, Nadya G. Gurskaya, Sergey Lukyanov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


The mechanism of the chromophore maturation in members of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family such as DsRed and other red fluorescent and chromoproteins was analyzed. The analysis indicates that the red chromophore results from a chemical transformation of the protonated form of the GFP-like chromophore, not from the anionic form, which appears to be a dead-end product. The data suggest a rational strategy to achieve the complete red chromophore maturation utilizing substitutions to favor the formation of the neutral phenol in GFP-like chromophore. Our approach to detect the neutral chromophore form expands the application of fluorescent timer proteins to faster promoter activities and more spectrally distinguishable fluorescent colors. Light sensitivity found in the DsRed neutral form, resulting in its instant transformation to the mature red chromophore, could be exploited to accelerate the fluorescence acquisition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-854
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry and Biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Common pathway for the red chromophore formation in fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this