Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Older Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review

Andrea R. Zammit, Mindy J. Katz, Markus Bitzer, Richard B. Lipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially older adults, are at more risk of experiencing cognitive impairment, possibly leading to mild cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Studies report associations between CKD and cognitive impairment; although unclear, there seems to be a graded association between stage of CKD and affected cognitive domains, with executive function being affected earlier in the process than episodic memory and global ability. In CKD, dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are also more prominent than other subtypes. Explanations are directed toward traditional and nontraditional vascular factors, which may also explain or mediate the association between CKD and type of cognitive impairment. Future research is urged to focus on the longitudinal association between specific domains of cognitive function, including executive function and memory and CKD; to develop screening tools fit for every CKD stage in elderly individuals, and lastly, to use imaging methods that may help clarify the underlying mechanisms connecting the kidney and the brain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-366
Number of pages10
JournalAlzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2016


  • MCI
  • albuminuria
  • chronic kidney disease
  • cognitive impairment
  • dementia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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