CCL2 mobilizes ALIX to facilitate Gag-p6 mediated HIV-1 virion release

David O. Ajasin, Vasudev R. Rao, Xuhong Wu, Santhamani Ramasamy, Mario Pujato, Arthur P. Ruiz, Andras Fiser, Anne R. Bresnick, Ganjam V. Kalpana, Vinayaka R. Prasad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Cellular ESCRT machinery plays pivotal role in HIV-1 budding and release. Extracellular stimuli that modulate HIV-1 egress are currently unknown. We found that CCL2 induced by HIV-1 clade B (HIV-1B) infection of macrophages enhanced virus production, while CCL2 immunodepletion reversed this effect. Additionally, HIV-1 clade C (HIV-1C) was refractory to CCL2 levels. We show that CCL2-mediated increase in virus production requires Gag late motif LYPX present in HIV-1B, but absent in HIV-1C, and ALIX protein that recruits ESCRT III complex. CCL2 immunodepletion sequestered ALIX to F-actin structures, while CCL2 addition mobilized it to cytoplasm facilitating Gag-ALIX binding. The LYPX motif improves virus replication and its absence renders the virus less fit. Interestingly, novel variants of HIV-1C with PYRE/PYKE tetrapeptide insertions in Gag-p6 conferred ALIX binding, CCL2-responsiveness and enhanced virus replication. These results, for the first time, indicate that CCL2 mediates ALIX mobilization from F-actin and enhances HIV-1 release and fitness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere35546
StatePublished - Jun 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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