Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants

Christoph P. Hornik, Eric M. Graham, Kevin Hill, Jennifer S. Li, George Ofori-Amanfo, Reese H. Clark, P. Brian Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. Aims We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. Outcomes measures We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Results Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran–Armitage test for trend p = 0.35). Conclusions Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-22
Number of pages6
JournalEarly Human Development
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Infants
  • Neonatal intensive care units
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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