Cannabinoids in oral fluid by on-site immunoassay and by GC-MS using two different oral fluid collection devices

Nathalie A. Desrosiers, Garry Milman, Damodara R. Mendu, Dayong Lee, Allan J. Barnes, David A. Gorelick, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Oral fluid (OF) enables non-invasive sample collection for on-site drug testing, but performance of on-site tests with occasional and frequent smokers' OF to identify cannabinoid intake requires further evaluation. Furthermore, as far as we are aware, no studies have evaluated differences between cannabinoid disposition among OF collection devices with authentic OF samples after controlled cannabis administration. Fourteen frequent (≥4 times per week) and 10 occasional (less than twice a week) adult cannabis smokers smoked one 6.8 % Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cigarette ad libitum over 10 min. OF was collected with the StatSure Saliva Sampler, Oral-Eze, and Draeger DrugTest 5000 test cassette before and up to 30 h after cannabis smoking. Test cassettes were analyzed within 15 min and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry cannabinoid results were obtained within 24 h. Cannabinoid concentrations with the StatSure and Oral-Eze devices were compared and times of last cannabinoid detection (t last) and DrugTest 5000 test performance were assessed for different cannabinoid cutoffs. 11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) and cannabinol concentrations were significantly higher in Oral-Eze samples than in Stat-Sure samples. DrugTest 5000 t last for a positive cannabinoid test were median (range) 12 h (4-24 h) and 21 h (1-≥30 h) for occasional and frequent smokers, respectively. Detection windows in screening and confirmatory tests were usually shorter for occasional than for frequent smokers, especially when including THCCOOH ≥20 ng L-1 in confirmation criteria. No differences in t last were observed between collection devices, except for THC ≥2 μg L-1. We thus report significantly different THCCOOH and cannabinol, but not THC, concentrations between OF collection devices, which may affect OF data interpretation. The DrugTest 5000 on-site device had high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency for cannabinoids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4117-4128
Number of pages12
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number17
StatePublished - Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cannabinoid
  • Draeger DrugTest 5000
  • On-site test
  • Oral fluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Cannabinoids in oral fluid by on-site immunoassay and by GC-MS using two different oral fluid collection devices'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this