Bottle-Weaning Intervention Tools: The "How" and "Why" of a WIC-Based Educational Flipchart, Parent Brochure, and Website

Christel Hyden, Richard Kahn, Karen Bonuck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective. This article describes the development of educational materials for a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based randomized controlled trial of an intervention encouraging timely bottle weaning. Method. Following a systematic process to develop of patient education materials, messages were first tested in 4 focus groups with 26 caregivers of WIC toddlers aged 7 to 36 months of age at the 2 study sites. Following review and revision, the materials were retested in one-on-one nutritional counseling sessions with 10 clients at the WIC sites who met the study's eligibility criteria. Results. Materials development was an iterative process requiring several levels of input, review, and revision. Use of a systematic process guided by steps adapted from the health education literature was crucial in ensuring continuous feedback from stakeholders, experts, and priority populations and to develop an intervention instrument that met the needs and expectations of all groups. Conclusions and implications. The content, theoretical orientation, and format of the materials were influenced at every turn by feedback from frontline WIC nutritionists, WIC policy staff at the state level, and WIC clients. Development of effective, easy to use materials requires constant input from key stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-80
Number of pages6
JournalHealth promotion practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • child/adolescent health
  • health education
  • health promotion
  • health research
  • nutrition
  • oral health
  • theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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