Biofeedback training for lower urinary tract symptoms: Factors affecting efficacy

Beth A. Drzewiecki, Pamela R. Kelly, Barbara Marinaccio, Joseph G. Borer, Carlos R. Estrada, Richard S. Lee, Stuart B. Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Purpose: Biofeedback therapy is a valuable modality in children with dysfunctional voiding. However, it is unclear what factors contribute to the outcome. To define who may or may not benefit from biofeedback therapy we reviewed our experience with this treatment. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 77 children referred between July 2005 and September 2008 for biofeedback therapy. An MR 20 Synergy trainer (Prometheus Group, Dover, New Hampshire) provided nonanimated and animated biofeedback. Uroflowmetry was performed at the start and end of each session. A total of 67 females and 10 males with a mean age of 9.0 years (range 4.8 to 18.2) comprised the cohort group. The primary referral diagnosis was nonfebrile urinary tract infection in 52 patients (67.5%), daytime and nighttime wetting in 47 (61%), voiding postponement in 14 (18.2%) and daytime incontinence in 10 (13%). Children were categorized by an outcome of success, improvement or failure. Results were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher exact probability and Student t tests. Results: Success, improvement and failure were achieved in 22 (26.8%), 29 (37.7%) and 26 cases (33.7%), respectively. Age and gender were not statistically significant predictors of outcome. A median of 3.0 sessions (range 1 to 8) was administered. Children with 3 or greater sessions were more likely to succeed (p <0.005). The improvement in urinary tract infections was statistically significant (p <0.001). Of 37 children 20 (54%) transformed a staccato voiding pattern to a normal one on uroflowmetry. Conclusions: Biofeedback therapy can be effective in children with dysfunctional voiding and urinary tract infection. Children with a staccato voiding pattern may require a minimum of 3 visits to improve the voiding pattern. Children who complete 3 sessions are more likely to succeed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2050-2055
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Oct 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Biofeedback (psychology)
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Urodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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