Assessment of the Wisconsin Criteria at a Level i Trauma Center

Megan C. Gray, Tejas Kollu, Priya A. Uppal, Christina Hanos, Adee Heiman, Joseph A. Ricci, Ashit Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Wisconsin Criteria was developed for physicians evaluating facial trauma to determine the likelihood of facial fractures. Subsequent studies have not consistently validated these criteria. This study seeks to validate the Wisconsin Criteria and determine its utility in predicting operative facial fractures. Retrospective chart review of the trauma database registry at a Level I Trauma Center was conducted from September 2011 to May 2019. Adult patients who had a complete facial examination by otolaryngology or plastic surgery as well as a head computed tomography scan completed, were included. Fisher exact test was utilized for statistical analysis (P < 0.05) and positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval. After screening, 546 patients met eligibility, 448 had at least 1 finding of the Wisconsin Criteria, and 472 patients had facial fractures. The sensitivity of the Wisconsin Criteria for determining the presence of a facial fracture was 86.23%, the specificity was 44.59%, and the NPV was 33.67% (P <.0001). Malocclusion was the criterion most specific in determining if a facial fracture was present (98.65%), and Glasgow Coma Score < 14 was the least specific (67.57%). The Wisconsin Criteria did aid in the identification of facial fractures in trauma patients with a comparable sensitivity, higher specificity, and much lower NPV than originally described. Further investigation should be done to validate the criteria in other large trauma centers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1725-1729
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Facial fracture
  • Wisconsin criteria
  • facial trauma
  • sensitivity
  • specificity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of the Wisconsin Criteria at a Level i Trauma Center'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this