Antibody-Mediated Rejection

Enver Akalin, Bruno Watschinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Summary: The introduction of both complement 4d (C4d) staining in renal allograft biopsies and sensitive methods to detect anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies, such as single antigen bead flow assays, into tissue-typing techniques have shown the importance of antibody-mediated alloimmune response in kidney transplantation. The use of these sensitive methods, combined with the increased number of transplants in highly sensitized patients with donor-specific antibodies, or patients receiving desensitization protocols, have increased the awareness and thus the incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection. Chronic rejection also can be mediated through alloantibodies, and the term chronic antibody-mediated rejection recently was proposed. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge of the role of alloantibodies in transplantation, the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection, and their effect on graft function and outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-407
Number of pages15
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-HLA antibody
  • humoral rejection
  • kidney transplantation
  • sensitization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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