Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

Cynthia R. LaBella, William Hennrikus, Timothy E. Hewett, Joel S. Brenner, Alison Brooks, Rebecca A. Demorest, Mark E. Halstead, Amanda K. Weiss Kelly, Chris G. Koutures, Michele LaBotz, Keith J. Loud, Stephanie S. Martin, Kody A. Moffatt, Holly J. Benjamin, Charles T. Cappetta, Teri McCambridge, Andrew J.M. Gregory, Lisa K. Kluchurosky, John F. Philpot, Kevin D. WalterAnjie Emanuel, Richard M. Schwend, J. Eric Gordon, Norman Y. Otsuka, Ellen M. Raney, Brian A. Shaw, Brian G. Smith, Lawrence Wells, William L. Hennrikus, S. Niccole Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations


The number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries reported in athletes younger than 18 years has increased over the past 2 decades. Reasons for the increasing ACL injury rate include the growing number of children and adolescents participating in organized sports, intensive sports training at an earlier age, and greater rate of diagnosis because of increased awareness and greater use of advanced medical imaging. ACL injury rates are low in young children and increase sharply during puberty, especially for girls, who have higher rates of noncontact ACL injuries than boys do in similar sports. Intrinsic risk factors for ACL injury include higher BMI, subtalar joint overpronation, generalized ligamentous laxity, and decreased neuromuscular control of knee motion. ACL injuries often require surgery and/or many months of rehabilitation and substantial time lost from school and sports participation. Unfortunately, regardless of treatment, athletes with ACL injuries are up to 10 times more likely to develop degenerative arthritis of the knee. Safe and effective surgical techniques for children and adolescents continue to evolve. Neuromuscular training can reduce risk of ACL injury in adolescent girls. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ACL injuries in children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1437-e1450
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Athletes
  • Knee injuries
  • Sports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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