Analysis of 2-LTR circle junctions of viral DNA in infected cells

Dibyakanti Mandal, Vinayaka R. Prasad

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

17 Scopus citations


The unintegrated viral DNA synthesized during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection includes linear and circular forms. Circular forms of viral DNA are surrogate markers for nuclear import of viral DNA during virus replication as well as events surrounding the completion of reverse transcription. Analysis of 2-LTR circles is convenient and the quantity of 2-LTR circle formed is directly proportional to the amount of viral DNA imported into the cell nucleus. In addition, correct synthesis of 2-LTR circles is an outcome of HIV-1 Gag-Pol function. Thus, quantitation and sequence analysis of 2-LTR circles have been very important in studying the structure and function relationship of key viral proteins. In this chapter, we describe the methods of quantitation and analysis of 2-LTR circle junctions isolated from HIV-1 infected cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHIV Protocols
EditorsVinayaka R. Prasad, Ganjam V. Kalpana
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2009

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • 2-LTR circle junction
  • Real-time PCR
  • Sequence analysis
  • Southern blot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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