Analyses of age, gender and other risk factors of erythropoietin resistance in pediatric and adult dialysis cohorts

Oluwatoyin Fatai Bamgbola, Fredrick J. Kaskel, Maria Coco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Previous studies often report lower responses to erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis than those of adults. Because of the greater capacity for hematopoiesis in the younger population, these studies may be confounded by poorly identified variables. Thus, we made parallel studies of pediatric and adult cohorts to explore the relationship between age, gender and other risk factors with EPO resistance. Thirty pediatric subjects (aged 8-20 years) and 66 adult subjects (aged 22-85 years) on chronic hemodialysis and EPO were enrolled. After stratification by 50th percentile of EPO response, the best predictive model was identified by backward elimination of the risk factors with the least contribution to the regression. Relationship between age, gender and EPO resistance was examined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The most predictive model of EPO response for the pediatric cohort had, as the major variables, urea clearance × dialysis duration/total body water (Kt/V), urea reduction ratio (URR), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), blood loss, normalized protein catabolic rates (nPCR) and indices of malnutrition and inflammation, whereas adults had iron and folate deficiencies as the dominant variables. Although EPO resistance was more common in female subjects than in male subjects, relationship with neither age nor gender was significant. Furthermore, the prescription of a larger (initiating) EPO dose by pediatric physicians compared with adult nephrologists confounded the interaction between age and EPO resistance. In summary EPO resistance in the pediatric dialysis cohort was predicted by nutritional deficits, inflammation, poor dialysis, and hyperparathyroidism, while iron and folate deficits were the major determinants in adults. Although confounded by the pattern of EPO prescription, neither age nor gender was predictive of EPO resistance in the two study groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)571-579
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2009


  • Age
  • Anemia
  • EPO resistance
  • Gender
  • Hemodialysis
  • Regression analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology


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