Anal condyloma treatment and recurrence in hiv- Negative men who have sex with men

Richard J. Silvera, Casey K. Smith, Kristin A. Swedish, Stephen E. Goldstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men have increased prevalence of both human papillomavirus and anogenital condyloma. OBJECTIVE: Risk factors for multiple treatment and recurrence of anal condyloma were examined. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of HIV-negative men who have sex with men who were treated for anal condyloma. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in a private surgical practice. PATIENTS: The patients were HIV-negative men who have sex with men, aged 18 years or older. INTERVENTION(S): Ablation with electrocautery or CO2 laser was performed, as well as excision and topical imiquimod condyloma treatment adjuvant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary clearance, defined as 4 months of condyloma-free survival posttreatment, and recurrence, defined as any anal condyloma diagnosis after primary clearance. RESULTS: Of 231 participants, 207 achieved primary clearance (median age, 32.0 years) and were followed (median, 18.2 months) after primary treatment. Most had intra-Anal and perianal condyloma (56%), were treated with electrocautery ablation (79.2%), and required 1 treatment (range, 1-6) for clearance. There were 57 recurrences (median, 12 months). One-third each had minimal, moderate, or extensive disease. Forty-six percent of patients received imiquimod posttreatment adjuvant. High-grade dysplasia was found in 31% at presentation and 43% during follow-up. Factors associated with requiring multiple treatments for clearance were participants having moderate disease (adjusted odds ratio, 6.0 (1.7-21.4)) and receiving imiquimod adjuvant (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7 (2.0-10.6)). No single factor predicted recurrence, but those with moderate disease experienced recurrences significantly sooner (median, 25 months of follow-up). LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective chart review, it was limited to a single practice, and it excluded those who did not achieve primary clearance. CONCLUSIONS: Most men who have sex with men have intra-Anal and perianal condyloma and concomitant high-grade dysplasia is common. Most achieved clearance with 1 treatment. Having both intra-Anal and perianal condyloma, increased severity of disease, and imiquimod adjuvant were significant predictors of requiring multiple treatments for clearance. No identified risk factors proved a significant predictor of recurrence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)752-761
Number of pages10
JournalDiseases of the Colon and Rectum
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Anal
  • Condyloma
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine
  • Imiquimod
  • Men who have sex with men

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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