After Helsinki: Unresolved issues in international research

Ruth Macklin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Following a long process of revision, a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki was approved by the World Medical Association in 2000. Two provisions of the Declaration address ongoing international controversies regarding research sponsored by industrialized countries and conducted in developing countries. Despite the issuance of the final version of the Declaration, opponents remain locked in debate. Moreover, the Declaration remained silent on other prominent controversies concerning international research. An analysis of these current controversies reveals reasons why they are not likely to be readily resolved, despite apparent agreement by opponents on overarching ethical principles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-36
Number of pages20
JournalKennedy Institute of Ethics journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Issues, ethics and legal aspects
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Policy
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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