Adolescent academic adjustment factors and the trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the mid-30s

Judith S. Brook, Elinor Balka, Chenshu Zhang, Kerstin Pahl, David W. Brook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Knowledge of early predictors that differentiate between various longitudinal smoking patterns might facilitate designing more effective interventions. Using data from 806 participants, we examined the association of three adolescent academic adjustment factors-educational aspirations and expectations, perception of school achievement, and trouble at school-to five trajectories of cigarette use covering 23 years from adolescence to adulthood. The five trajectory groups were heavy/continuous smokers, late starters, quitter/decreasers, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers. Each academic factor predicted smoking trajectory group membership. Each academic factor was significantly associated with being a heavy/continuous smoker rather than a member of other trajectory groups. Behavioral academic factors also differentiated quitter/decreasers from late starters, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers. Adolescents manifesting academic maladjustment risk becoming early, chronic smokers. Prevention and intervention efforts targeting educational maladjustment may decrease cigarette smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-21
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Adolescent academic adjustment factors and the trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the mid-30s'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this