Addition of Solids and Sweeteners in Toddler Bottles and Sippy Cups

Christel J. Hyden, Karen A. Bonuck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Serving cereal and other foods by baby bottle is a common infant feeding practice, yet little research explores how this practice may continue beyond the first year of life or following transition from the bottle to sippy cups. This article describes the addition of solids and sweeteners into bottles and sippy cups of milk, formula, or nondairy milk among children aged 1 to 2 years in an urban Women, Infants, and Children clinic. This observational study recruited n = 299 low-income nutrition program clients whose 12-month-olds consumed ≥2 nonwater bottles per day. Dietary recall data were extracted for the 3105 servings of milk, formula, or nondairy milk in bottles or sippy cups and analyzed for vessel, content, addition of solids or sweeteners (eg, cereals or syrups), calories, and added grams of sugar. Sixty-one percent of children had a solid or sweetener added to their beverage at least once. Solids or sweeteners were added to 38% of baby bottles and 21% of sippy cups. Presence of solids and sweeteners did not vary by ethnic group; however, cereal was more common in beverages served to Hispanic children and sweeteners were more common in the beverages of African American children. Beverages with added ingredients had nearly 3 times the added sugar and 23% more calories than those without added ingredients. Additions of solids and sweeteners to milk, formula, and nondairy milk is a practice that continues beyond infancy. Further research is needed to understand this behavior in a larger population and to determine the potential effects on diet quality and health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-210
Number of pages6
JournalInfant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 13 2014


  • bottle
  • child-feeding
  • nutrient intake
  • sippy cup
  • solids
  • sweeteners
  • toddler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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