ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Sinonasal Disease: 2021 Update

Expert Panel on Neurological Imaging:

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This article presents guidelines for initial imaging utilization in patients presenting with sinonasal disease, including acute rhinosinusitis without and with suspected orbital and intracranial complications, chronic rhinosinusitis, suspected invasive fungal sinusitis, suspected sinonasal mass, and suspected cerebrospinal fluid leak. CT and MRI are the primary imaging modalities used to evaluate patients with sinonasal disease. Given its detailed depiction of bony anatomy, CT can accurately demonstrate the presence of sinonasal disease, bony erosions, and anatomic variants, and is essential for surgical planning. Given its superior soft tissue contrast, MRI can accurately identify clinically suspected intracranial and intraorbital complications, delineate soft tissue extension of tumor and distinguish mass from obstructed secretions.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S175-S193
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • AUC
  • Acute sinusitis
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • CSF leak
  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Invasive fungal sinusitis
  • Sinonasal mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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