A requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in pseudopod extension

Dianne Cox, Ching Chun Tseng, Gordana Bjekic, Steven Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

329 Scopus citations


Phagocytosis requires actin assembly and pseudopod extension, two cellular events that coincide spatially and temporally. The signal transduction events underlying both processes may be distinct. We tested whether phagocytic signaling resembles that of growth factor receptors, which induce actin polymerization via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis was accompanied by a rapid increase in the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in vivo, and addition of wortmannin (WM) or LY294002, two inhibitors of PI 3- kinase(s), inhibited phagocytosis but not Fcγ receptor-directed actin polymerization. However, both compounds prevented maximal pseudopod extension, suggesting that PI 3-kinase inhibition produced a limitation in membrane required for pseudopod extension. Availability of plasma membrane was not limiting for phagocytosis, because blockade of ingestion in the presence of WM was not overcome by reducing the number of particles adhering to macrophages. However, decreasing bead size, and hence the magnitude of pseudopod extension required for particle engulfment, relieved the inhibition of phagocytosis in the presence of WM or LY294002 by up to 80%. The block in phagocytosis of large particles occurred before phagosomal closure, because both compounds inhibited spreading of macrophages on substrate-bound IgG. Macrophage spreading on IgG was accompanied by exocytic insertion of membrane from an intracellular source, as measured by the dye FM1-43. These results indicate that one or more isoforms of PI 3 kinase are required for maximal pseudopod extension but not phagocytosis per se. We suggest that PI 3-kinase is required for coordinating exocytic membrane insertion and pseudopod extension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1240-1247
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 15 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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