A Potent Class of GPR40 Full Agonists Engages the EnteroInsular Axis to Promote Glucose Control in Rodents

Jian Luo, Gayathri Swaminath, Sean P. Brown, Jane Zhang, Qi Guo, Michael Chen, Kathy Nguyen, Thanhvien Tran, Lynn Miao, Paul J. Dransfield, Marc Vimolratana, Jonathan B. Houze, Simon Wong, Maria Toteva, Bei Shan, Frank Li, Run Zhuang, Daniel C.H. Lin

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118 Scopus citations


Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin resistance and the incretin response. GPR40 (FFAR1 or FFA1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), primarily expressed in insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and incretin-producing enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine. Several GPR40 agonists, including AMG 837 and TAK-875, have been disclosed, but no GPR40 synthetic agonists have been reported that engage both the insulinogenic and incretinogenic axes. In this report we provide a molecular explanation and describe the discovery of a unique and potent class of GPR40 full agonists that engages the enteroinsular axis to promote dramatic improvement in glucose control in rodents. GPR40 full agonists AM-1638 and AM-6226 stimulate GLP-1 and GIP secretion from intestinal enteroendocrine cells and increase GSIS from pancreatic islets, leading to enhanced glucose control in the high fat fed, streptozotocin treated and NONcNZO10/LtJ mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The improvement in hyperglycemia by AM-1638 was reduced in the presence of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Ex(9-39)NH2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere46300
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 9 2012
Externally publishedYes

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