Background: Jawline aging is a complex process. We believe loss of posterior jawline definition and volume depletion is an underappreciated factor in the aging face. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a novel composite, rotational flap modification of an extended deep-plane rhytidectomy. We evaluated long-term efficacy on improving jawline contour and volumization of the posterior mandibular region overlying the gonial angle. Methods: We performed a prospective study on patients who underwent our modification of extended deep-plane rhytidectomy. We define and introduce the mandibular defining line, a new anatomic metric in evaluating the mandibular contour. We define the area of the posterior lower face overlying the gonion and mandibular angle as the gonial area. Using 3-dimensional photography, we quantify contour changes along the mandibular border and volume change along the gonial area. Results: Eighty-nine patients (178 hemifaces) were analyzed. The mean gonial area volume gained was 3.5 cc. Average follow-up was 19 months. There was a statistically significant change in the mean mandibular defining line from 7.1 cm preoperatively to 9.8 cm postoperatively. This represents a lengthening of the visual perspective of the mandibular contour of 2.7 cm. Conclusions: Composite, rotational flap modification of extended deep-plane rhytidectomy provides significant long-term augmentation of volume to the posterior mandibular region and lengthens the visual perspective of the inferior mandibular contour, creating a more youthful jawline. In selected cases, this may obviate the need for other volumization procedures used to improve jawline contour, such as autologous fat grafting.
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