A new taxonomy for stakeholder engagement in patient-centered outcomes research

Thomas W. Concannon, Paul Meissner, Jo Anne Grunbaum, Newell McElwee, Jeanne Marie Guise, John Santa, Patrick H. Conway, Denise Daudelin, Elaine H. Morrato, Laurel K. Leslie

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

283 Scopus citations


Despite widespread agreement that stakeholder engagement is needed in patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR), no taxonomy exists to guide researchers and policy makers on how to address this need. We followed an iterative process, including several stages of stakeholder review, to address three questions: (1) Who are the stakeholders in PCOR? (2) What roles and responsibilities can stakeholders have in PCOR? (3) How can researchers start engaging stakeholders? We introduce a flexible taxonomy called the 7Ps of Stakeholder Engagement and Six Stages of Research for identifying stakeholders and developing engagement strategies across the full spectrum of research activities. The path toward engagement will not be uniform across every research program, but this taxonomy offers a common starting point and a flexible approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)985-991
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2012


  • Guidance
  • Research
  • Stakeholders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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