4Ms for Early Learners: A Skills-Based Geriatrics Curriculum for Second-Year Medical Students

Gabrielle R. Goldberg, Gabriela Solis, Janice T. John, Doreen M. Olvet, Kimberly A. Kranz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Given the growing population of older adults, it is of utmost importance for all future physicians to be trained in the core skills of conducting geriatric assessment. Methods: We designed an interactive, skills-based session introducing core competencies for geriatric assessment for second-year medical students (MS2s). We organized our curriculum for early learners based on the 4Ms framework: mind/memory, medications, mobility, and matters most. The session consisted of brief didactics with integration of real-time skills-based practice. Students completed pre- and postsession surveys to assess their confidence in their knowledge and skills. All students completed a geriatric assessment during a clinical skills encounter as part of a multistation, end-of-course, summative clinical skills examination (CSE). The session was conducted virtually over 2 academic years, and the CSE was conducted virtually in 2020 and in person in 2021. Results: One hundred ninety-nine MS2s participated in the session (100 in 2020, 99 in 2021). All students surveyed (33%) reported improved confidence in geriatric knowledge and skills by the end of the session (ps < .001). Students were more likely to use a cognitive screening tool, ask about advance care planning, and assess medication adherence on the CSE in 2021 compared to 2020 (ps < .001). Discussion: We provide an interactive curriculum for MS2s to develop geriatric assessment skills. The curriculum and assessment tools are versatile, can be easily integrated into any medical school curriculum, and can be effectively delivered in person or on a virtual platform.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11264
Number of pages1
JournalMedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources
StatePublished - 2022


  • Case-Based Learning
  • Clinical Skills Assessment/OSCEs
  • Falls
  • Geriatrics
  • Medication Reconciliation
  • Mobility
  • Standardized Patient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of '4Ms for Early Learners: A Skills-Based Geriatrics Curriculum for Second-Year Medical Students'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this